Indian Languages

In India 22 total languages are recognized by Indian Constitution and there are total 31 number of languages in India have received the status of official languages. There are as many as 880 languages spoken across India. 31 languages have been adopted by different states and union territories giving them the status of official languages. However, there is no national language of India.

This is also not true that India has its two official languages, Hindi and English. The official language of India is Hindi in its original Devanagari script. Constitution of India clearly sates that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. It is also mentioned in Article 343 of the Indian Constitution that English language shall continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union.

That means Hindi is the official language of the Republic of India and English will be used as associate/provisional language for all official purposes.

Grammar and Writing

The majority of India’s languages have their own specific alphabets, except for Punjabi, Kashmiri, Urdu and Sindhi, which use slightly variant versions of the Arabic script. Hindi and other Indian languages use the Devanagari script that is written from left to right; this is the script also used by the Nepalese.

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On an interesting note, the Indian languages of Hindi and Urdu hail from the same source – their speakers can understand each other perfectly even though each has a different script. Hindi uses the Devanagari alphabet while Urdu relies on the Persian-Arabic alphabet.

List of Official Languages are There in India

No. Language Script For Language Paper
1 Assamese Assamese
2 Bengali Bengali
3 Bodo Devanagari
4 Dogri Devanagari
5 Gujarati Gujarati
6 Hindi Devanagari
7 Kannada Kannada
8 Kashmiri Persian
9 Konkani Devanagari
10 Maithili Devanagari
11 Malayalam Malayalam
12 Manipuri Bengali
13 Marathi Devanagari
14 Nepali Devanagari
15 Odia Odia
16 Punjabi Gurmukhi
17 Sanskrit Devanagari
18 Santhali Devanagari or Olchiki
19 Sindhi Devanagari or Arabic
20 Tamil Tamil
21 Telugu Telugu
22 Urdu Persian

List of 22 languages which have been given the grade of National   Languages.

Indian Languages

Source :

Name of State/Union Territory Major Language Spoken Other Languages Spoken
Jammu and Kashmir Kashmiri Dogri and Hindi
Himachal Pradesh Hindi Punjabi and Nepali
Punjab Punjabi Hindi
Uttrakhand Hindi Urdu, Punjabi and Nepali
Haryana Hindi Punjabi and Urdu
Delhi Hindi Punjabi, Urdu and Bengali
Uttar Pradesh Hindi Urdu
Rajasthan Hindi Punjabi and Urdu
Madhya Pradesh Hindi Marathi and Urdu
Chhattisgarh Hindi Bengali and Oriya
Bihar Hindi Maithili and Urdu
Jharkhand Hindi Santali, Bengali and Urdu
West Bengal Bengali Hindi, Santali, Urdu, Nepali
Sikkim Nepali Hindi, Bengali
Assam Assamese Bengali, Hindi, Bodo and Nepali
Arunachal Pradesh Bengali Nepali, Hindi and Assamese
Nagaland Bengali Hindi and Nepali
Mizoram Bengali Hindi and Nepali
Tripura Bengali Hindi
Meghalaya Bengali Hindi and Nepali
Manipur Manipuri Nepali, Hindi and Bengali
Odisha Oriya Hindi, Telegu and Santali
Maharashtra Marathi Hindi, Urdu and Gujarati
Gujarat Gujarati Hindi, Sindhi, Marathi and Urdu
Daman and Diu Gujarati Hindi and Marathi
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Gujarati Hindi, Konkani and Marathi
Goa Konkani Marathi, Hindi and Kannada
Karnataka Kannada Urdu, Telugu, Marathi and Tamil
Andhra Pradesh Telugu Urdu, Hindi and Tamil
Kerala Malayalam None
Lakshadweep Islands Malayalam None
Tamil Nadu Tamil Telugu, Kannada and Urdu
Puducherry Tamil Telugu, Kannada and Urdu
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Bengali Hindi, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam
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List of 10 Additional Official Languages of the State Sikkim for the Preservation of Culture and Tradition

No. Languages
1 Bhutia
2 Lepcha
3 Limboo
4 Newari
5 Gurung
6 Magar
7 Mukhia
8 Rai
9 Sherpa
10 Tamang

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