In India 22 total languages are recognized by Indian Constitution and there are total 31 number of languages in India have received the status of official languages. There are as many as 880 languages spoken across India. 31 languages have been adopted by different states and union territories giving them the status of official languages. However, there is no national language of India.
This is also not true that India has its two official languages, Hindi and English. The official language of India is Hindi in its original Devanagari script. Constitution of India clearly sates that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. It is also mentioned in Article 343 of the Indian Constitution that English language shall continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union.
That means Hindi is the official language of the Republic of India and English will be used as associate/provisional language for all official purposes.
Grammar and Writing
The majority of India’s languages have their own specific alphabets, except for Punjabi, Kashmiri, Urdu and Sindhi, which use slightly variant versions of the Arabic script. Hindi and other Indian languages use the Devanagari script that is written from left to right; this is the script also used by the Nepalese.
On an interesting note, the Indian languages of Hindi and Urdu hail from the same source – their speakers can understand each other perfectly even though each has a different script. Hindi uses the Devanagari alphabet while Urdu relies on the Persian-Arabic alphabet.
List of Official Languages are There in India
|No.||Language||Script For Language Paper|
|18||Santhali||Devanagari or Olchiki|
|19||Sindhi||Devanagari or Arabic|
List of 22 languages which have been given the grade of National Languages.
|Name of State/Union Territory||Major Language Spoken||Other Languages Spoken|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Kashmiri||Dogri and Hindi|
|Himachal Pradesh||Hindi||Punjabi and Nepali|
|Uttrakhand||Hindi||Urdu, Punjabi and Nepali|
|Haryana||Hindi||Punjabi and Urdu|
|Delhi||Hindi||Punjabi, Urdu and Bengali|
|Rajasthan||Hindi||Punjabi and Urdu|
|Madhya Pradesh||Hindi||Marathi and Urdu|
|Chhattisgarh||Hindi||Bengali and Oriya|
|Bihar||Hindi||Maithili and Urdu|
|Jharkhand||Hindi||Santali, Bengali and Urdu|
|West Bengal||Bengali||Hindi, Santali, Urdu, Nepali|
|Assam||Assamese||Bengali, Hindi, Bodo and Nepali|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Bengali||Nepali, Hindi and Assamese|
|Nagaland||Bengali||Hindi and Nepali|
|Mizoram||Bengali||Hindi and Nepali|
|Meghalaya||Bengali||Hindi and Nepali|
|Manipur||Manipuri||Nepali, Hindi and Bengali|
|Odisha||Oriya||Hindi, Telegu and Santali|
|Maharashtra||Marathi||Hindi, Urdu and Gujarati|
|Gujarat||Gujarati||Hindi, Sindhi, Marathi and Urdu|
|Daman and Diu||Gujarati||Hindi and Marathi|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Gujarati||Hindi, Konkani and Marathi|
|Goa||Konkani||Marathi, Hindi and Kannada|
|Karnataka||Kannada||Urdu, Telugu, Marathi and Tamil|
|Andhra Pradesh||Telugu||Urdu, Hindi and Tamil|
|Tamil Nadu||Tamil||Telugu, Kannada and Urdu|
|Puducherry||Tamil||Telugu, Kannada and Urdu|
|Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Bengali||Hindi, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam|
List of 10 Additional Official Languages of the State Sikkim for the Preservation of Culture and Tradition